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Detection of circulating platelet-monocyte complexes in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1

Abstract

Activated platelets form transient aggregates with monocytes in circulation and have a half-life of approximately 30-60min. These complexes are increased in various inflammatory conditions and are an early marker of myocardial infarction. HIV-1 infection is associated with chronic inflammation, and increased CD16(+) inflammatory monocytes have been observed in these individuals, probably as a result of increased interaction with platelets. However, narrow detection period and platelet activation during sample processing pose significant problems in detecting platelet-monocyte complexes (PMCs). A method was standardized addressing these difficulties, to enumerate PMCs involving CD16(+) or CD16(-) monocytes in whole blood using flow cytometry. Blood collected from healthy individuals was treated with either collagen (for platelet activation) or LPS (for monocyte activation) and subsequently used to study effect of these treatments on PMC formation. This method was also validated for the ex vivo quantitation of PMCs in blood obtained from persons infected with HIV. The in vitro results demonstrated that platelet activation, but not monocyte activation, resulted in significant increase in PMC formation. There was a significant increase in CD16(+) PMCs and platelet activation, in samples obtained from persons infected with HIV as compared to those without HIV infection. Furthermore, PMC percentages correlated positively with platelet activation. These findings improve the ability to detect PMCs and shed light on HIV pathogenesis.

Authors: Singh MV, Davidson DC, Kiebala M, Maggirwar SB.
Journal: J Virol Methods. 181(2):170-6.
Year: 2012
PubMed: Find in PubMed