Human Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock

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Monocyte and Myeloid Dendritic Cell Activation Occurs Throughout HIV Type 2 Infection, an Attenuated Form of HIV Disease

Abstract

Monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) are important orchestrators of innate and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific immune responses and of the generalized inflammation that characterizes AIDS progression. To our knowledge, we are the first to investigate monocyte and mDC imbalances in HIV type 2 (HIV-2)-positive patients, who typically feature reduced viremia and slow disease progression despite the recognized ability of HIV-2 to establish viral reservoirs and overcome host restriction factors in myeloid cells. We found a heightened state of monocyte and mDC activation throughout HIV-2 infection (characterized by CD14(bright)CD16(+) expansion, as well as increased levels of soluble CD14, HLA-DR, and CD86), together with progressive mDC depletion. Importantly, HIV-2-positive patients also featured overexpression of the inhibitory molecule PD-L1 on monocytes and mDCs, which may act by limiting the production of proinflammatory molecules. These data, from patients with a naturally occurring form of attenuated HIV disease, challenge current paradigms regarding the role of monocytes in HIV/AIDS and open new perspectives regarding potential strategies to modulate inflammatory states.

Authors: Cavaleiro R, Tendeiro R, Foxall RB, Soares RS, Baptista AP, Gomes P, Valadas E, Victorino RM, Sousa AE
Journal: J Infect Dis. 207(11):1730-42
Year: 2013
PubMed: Find in PubMed