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HIV-1-triggered release of type I IFN by plasmacytoid dendritic cells induces BAFF production in monocytes.

Abstract

HIV-1 infection leads to numerous B cell abnormalities, including hypergammaglobulinemia, nonspecific B cell activation, nonspecific class switching, increased cell turnover, breakage of tolerance, increased immature/transitional B cells, B cell malignancies, as well as a loss of capacity to generate and maintain memory, all of which contribute to a global impairment of the immune humoral compartment. Several cytokines and soluble factors, which are increased in sera of HIV-1-infected individuals, have been suggested to directly or indirectly contribute to these B cell dysfunctions, and one of these is the B cell-activating factor (BAFF). We report in this study that HIV-1 (X4- and R5-tropic) upregulates BAFF expression and secretion by human monocytes. Moreover, we show that the virus-mediated production of BAFF by monocytes relies on a type I IFN response by a small percentage of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) present in the monocyte cultures. HIV-1-induced type I IFN by pDCs triggers BAFF production in both classical and intermediate monocytes, but not in nonclassical monocytes, which nonetheless display a very strong basal BAFF production. We report also that basal BAFF secretion was higher in monocytes obtained from females compared with those from male donors. This study provides a novel mechanistic explanation for the increased BAFF levels observed during HIV-1 infection and highlights the importance of pDC/monocyte crosstalk to drive BAFF secretion.

Authors: Gomez AM, Ouellet M, Tremblay MJ.
Journal: J Immunol;194:2300-8
Year: 2015
PubMed: Find in PubMed