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Prior Exposure to Zika Virus Significantly Enhances Peak Dengue-2 Viremia in Rhesus Macaques.

Abstract

Structural and functional homologies between the Zika and Dengue viruses envelope proteins raise the possibility that cross-reactive antibodies induced following Zika virus infection might enhance subsequent Dengue infection. Using the rhesus macaque model we show that prior infection with Zika virus leads to a significant enhancement of Dengue-2 viremia that is accompanied by neutropenia, lympocytosis, hyperglycemia, and higher reticulocyte counts, along with the activation of pro-inflammatory monocyte subsets and release of inflammatory mediators. Zika virus infection induced detectable Dengue cross-reactive serum IgG responses that significantly amplified after Dengue-2 virus infection. Serum from Zika virus immune animals collected prior to Dengue-2 infection showed significant capacity for in vitro antibody dependent enhancement of Dengue-1, 2, 3 and 4 serotypes suggesting that pre-existing immunity to Zika virus could potentially enhance infection by heterologous Dengue serotypes. Our results provide first in vivo evidence that prior exposure to Zika virus infection can enhance Dengue infection, which has implications for understanding pathogenesis and the development of vaccines.

Authors: George J, Valiant WG, Mattapallil MJ, Walker M, Huang YS, Vanlandingham DL, Misamore J, Greenhouse J, Weiss DE, Verthelyi D, Higgs S, Andersen H, Lewis MG, Mattapallil JJ.
Journal: Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 5;7(1):10498.
Year: 2017
PubMed: Find in PubMed