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A role of lipophilic peptidoglycan-related molecules in induction of Nod1-mediated immune responses

Abstract

Nod1 is an intracellular protein that is involved in recognition of bacterial molecules and whose genetic variation has been linked to several inflammatory diseases. Previous studies suggested that the recognition core of Nod1-stimulatory molecules is gamma-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP), but the identity of the major Nod1-stimulatory molecule produced by bacteria remains unknown. Here we show that bacteria produce lipophilic molecules capable of stimulating Nod1. Analysis of synthetic compounds revealed stereoselectivity of the DAP residue and that conjugation of lipophilic acyl residues specifically enhances the Nod1-stimulatory activity of the core iE-DAP. Furthermore, we demonstrate that lipophilic molecules induce and/or enhance the secretion of innate immune mediators from primary mouse mesothelial cells and human monocytic MonoMac6 cells and this effect is mediated through Nod1. In addition, we show that myristoyl iE-DAP exhibits increased ability to induce antigen-specific antibody production without direct effects on dendritic cell maturation and lymphocyte activation. These results provide insight into the mechanism of immune recognition via Nod1 which might be useful in design and testing of novel immunoregulators.

Authors: Hasegawa M, Kawasaki A, Yang K, Fujimoto Y, Masumoto J, Breukink E, Nunez G, Fukase K, Inohara N
Journal: J Biol Chem., 282(16), 11757-11764
Year: 2007
PubMed: Find in PubMed