Human Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock

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No evidence for prooxidative effects of homocysteine in vascular endothelial cells

Abstract

Many epidemiological studies predict a role for homocysteine (HCys) in cardiovascular disease occurrence, progression, and risk factors. In vitro studies demonstrated that HCys is an atherogenic determinant that promotes oxidant stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and cell proliferation. This study originally attempted to examine the mechanism by which exposure of endothelial cells to HCys (0-250 microM) initiates inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress, by (i) investigating whether physiological and pathophysiological concentrations of HCys exhibit a prooxidative activity in vitro, (ii) examining the interaction of monocyte adhesion (Mono Mac 6) to monolayers of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) exposed to different HCys concentrations, and (iii) examining if adherent monocytes increase reactive oxygen species either in endothelial cells or in monocytes themselves. However, our results demonstrate that HCys had neither prooxidative nor cytotoxic effects on endothelial cells. Only a moderate time- and concentration-dependent increase in monocyte adhesion up to 28.3 +/- 5.5% was achieved relative to control after 4 h of HCys stimulation. This effect was accompanied by an increased VCAM and ICAM-1 mRNA expression. This "proinflammatory" effect appeared also when HMEC-1 cells were incubated with cysteine or glutathione at the concentration range 0-250 microM, demonstrating a non-specific rather than a specific HCys effect. In addition, adherent monocytes did not increase ROS formation neither in endothelial cells nor in monocytes themselves, indicating no direct or indirect cytotoxic or prooxidative effects of HCys.

Authors: Frank J, Beck SC, Flaccus A, Biesalski HK
Journal: Eur J Nutr., 46(5):286-292
Year: 2007
PubMed: Find in PubMed